Clinical studies are done before any drug is marketed. Researchers do not know drug’s pharmacological use or know about its dose, frequency and side effects; if they haven’t performed any clinical trials.
The drug is converted into medicine through clinical trials. Drug trials are done to explore whether a certain drug is safe for the human being or not. It’s a long-term process, usually; a million dollars are required to convert a drug into medicine which can take about up to 20 years to find out a new effective drug. Pharmaceutics industry performs clinical the search.
Scientists use a small number of peoples then moved to larger population to do clinical studies. Clinical trials help in finding:
Old drug with fewer side effects.
Improves patient outcomes.
First Clinical trial are done on animals to know about the safest dose then trials are perform on healthy humans later on disease patients for which medicine is supposed to work and then at the last stage researcher do surveillance to get to know its side effects which will appear after long use of drug. Many drugs are marketed off due to their severe side effects. It usually consists for four stages.